- tropology < Greek τροπολογία < τρόπος + λόγος
- The use of a trope.
- 1994, Lee Edelman, Homographesis, hardcover edition, preface
- These essays, in other words, endeavor to read the literary, cultural, and political implications of the tropologies of sexuality that are put into play once the field of sexuality becomes charged by the widespread availability of a "homosexual" identity, and they explore the determining relation between "homosexuality" and "identity" as both have been constructed in modern Euro-American societies.
- Greek τροπολογία
The English suffix -ology or -logy denotes a field of study or academic discipline, and -ologist describes a person who studies that field. However not every field or study or discipline is an '-ology', for instance the study of childbirth is midwifery and a practitioner is a midwife.
EtymologyThe word ology is a back-formation from the names of these disciplines. "-logy" basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), from λόγος (logos) and that from λέγω (lego), to speak. The word ology is thus misleading as the 'o' is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending. For example, the bio part of biology stems from Greek βιος (bios), life. This is why some of the words do not end in -ology (such as mineralogy).
Other words ending in "ology"Not all words ending in -ology are ologies in the above sense. In some words such as tautology, philology and haplology, the -logy suffix is from the Greek λογος (logos), word, and may denote something related to speech or text. Also called Emology for a scientific name.
UsageAlthough technically incorrect, "-ology" is sometimes used to describe a subject rather than the study of it. Technology is a typical example. This usage is also widespread in medicine; for example, pathology is often used for specific disease ("We haven't found the pathology yet").
"Ology" can be appended to any word, humorously, when describing its study; such as beer-ology or Wiki-ology. As with other Classical compounds, adding "ology" to a Latin or Greek based prefix may be used to lend grandeur or the impression of scientific rigor to humble pursuits, as in cosmetology (hairdressing) or cynology (dog training.)
There are a few irregular exceptions to the ending "-ologist"; for example theology/theologian.
They can also refer to the 'Ology series of books, fictional encyclopedias, currently including Dragonology: The Complete Book of Dragons, Egyptology: Search for the Tomb of Osiris, Wizardology: The Secrets of Merlin, Pirateology: A Pirate Hunter's Companion, and Mythology: Greek Gods, Heroes, & Monsters.
List of -ologies and what they study
- Acarology, the study of ticks and mites
- Actinobiology, the study of the effects of radiation upon living organisms
- Actinology, the study of the effect of light on chemicals
- Aerobiology, a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects and pollen, which are passively transported by the air.
- Aerology, the study of the atmosphere
- Aetiology, the medical study of the causation of disease
- Agnoiology, the study of things of which we are by nature ignorant, or of things which cannot be known
- Agrobiology, the study of plant nutrition and growth in relation to soil conditions
- Canada: the art and science of agriculture
- Non-Canada: the study of soils
- Agrostology, the study of grasses
- Algology, the study of algae
- Allergology, the study of the causes and treatment of allergies; a branch of medicine
- Andrology, the study of male health and disease
- Anesthesiology, the study of anesthesia and anesthetics; a branch of medicine
- Angelology, the study of angels
- Angiology, the study of the anatomy of blood and lymph vascular systems
- Anthropology, the study of humans
- Apiology, the study of bees (apiaries)
- Arachnology, the study of spiders and their kind
- Archaeology, the study of past cultures through the analysis of material remains
- Archaeozoology, the study of relationships between humans and animals over time through examination of animal remains at archaeological sites (also see Zooarchaeology)
- Areology, the study of Mars
- Assyriology, the study of the Assyrians
- Astacology, the study of crawfish
- Asteroseismology, the study of the internal structures of stars as revealed by their oscillations (see also Helioseismology).
- Astrobiology, the study of origin of life
- Astrogeology, the study of geology of celestial bodies (e.g., planets, asteroids, comets)
- Astrology, the study of the purported influence(s) of celestial bodies on earthly affairs
- Astrometeorology: using astrology to forecast the weather
- Atmology, the study of the laws and phenomena of aqueous vapors
- Audiology, the study of hearing; a branch of medicine
- Autecology, the study of the ecology of any individual species
- Autology, the attribute (of a word) of being self descriptive. The word "polysyllabic" is autological because it is polysyllabic. (compare heterology)
- Auxology, the study of human growth.
- Axiology, the study of the nature of values and value judgements
- bacteriology, study of bacteria
- balneology, the science of the therapeutic use of baths
- barodynamics, science of the support and mechanics of bridges
- barology, study of gravitation
- batology, the study of brambles
- bibliology, study of books
- bibliotics, study of documents to determine authenticity
- bioecology, study of interaction of life in the environment
- biology, study of life
- biometrics, study of biological measurement
- bionomics, study of organisms interacting in their environments
- botany, study of plants
- bromatology, study of food
- brontology, scientific study of thunder
- Campanology, the study and the art of bell ringing
- Cardiology, the study of the heart
- Cariology, the study of cells
- Cereology, the study of crop circles
- Cartography, the study of maps and mapmaking
- Cetology, the study of cetaceans - whales, dolphins, and porpoise
- Characterology, the study of character
- Christology, the theological study of redemption (christos > christein: to sacrament), not only speaking of Christianity but also extended to religion in general
- Chorology, the study of the relationship of biological or other phenomena to their locations
- Chronology the study of things in order of time or the study of time
- Climatology, the study of the climate
- Codicology, the study of the preparation of books and manuscripts (ink, paper, vellum etc)
- Coleopterology, the study of beetles
- Coniology, the study of dust in the atmosphere and its effects on plants and animals, also spelled "koniology"
- Conchology, the study of shells and of molluscs
- Contrology, a neologism for the Pilates method, a system of physical exercise
- Cosmology, the study of the cosmos or our place in it
- Cosmetology, the study of cosmetics and their use
- Craniology, the study of the characteristics of the skull
- Criminology, the scientific study of crime
- Cryology, the study of very low temperatures and related phenomena.
- Cryptology, the study of how to encrypt and decrypt secret messages
- Cryptozoology, the study of animals that may or may not be mythical
- Cynology, the study of dogs
- Cytomorphology, the study of the structure of cells
- Cytology, the study of cells
- Deltiology, the study of, but more often the collecting of, picture postcards
- Demonology, the study of demons
- Dendrochronology, the study of the age of trees and the records in their rings
- Dendrology, the study of trees
- Deontology, in ethics, the study of duty.
- Dermatology, the field of medicine that deals with the skin
- Dermatopathology, the field of dermatological anatomical pathology
- Desmology, the study of ligaments
- Dialectology, the study of dialects
- Dipterology, the study of flies
- Diabetology, the study of diabetes mellitus
- Doxology, a liturgical expression of praise to God
- Dragonology, the study of dragons
- Ecclesiology, the study of Church architecture and decoration, or separately the study of the Christian Church
- Ecogeomorphology, or biogeomorphology, the study of interactions between organisms and geomorphological processes
- Ecohydrology, the study of interactions among organisms and the water cycle.
- Ecology, the study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. Sometimes spelled "œcology".
- Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be utilized for economic and/or industrial purposes.
- Ecophysiology, the study of the interrelationship between an organism's physical functioning and its environment
- Edaphology, a branch of soil science that studies the influence of soil on life.
- Egyptology, the study of the ancient Egyptians
- Electrophysiology, the study of the relationship between electric phenomena and bodily processes
- Embryology, the study of embryos
- Emetology, the study or knowledge of emetics
- Endocrinology, the study of internal secretory glands
- Ecchinology, the study of cheeses.
- Enigmatology, the study of puzzles
- Enology (or Oenology), the study of wine and winemaking
- Entomology, the study of insects
- Enzymology, the study of enzymes
- Epidemiology, the study of the origin and spread of diseases
- Epistemology, the study of the nature and origins of knowledge
- Escapology, the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps.
- Eschatology, a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of mankind
- Ethnology, the study of race
- Ethnomusicology, the study of music in society, usually non-western music
- Ethology, the study of animal behaviour
- Etiology, same as Aetiology
- Etymology, the study of word origins
- Eulogy, the speech of praise
- Evolutionary biology, the study of the process of biological evolution
- Evolutionary psychology, the study of the process of (usually) human psychological evolution.
- Exobiology, the study of life in outer space
- Felinology, the study of cats
- Ferroequinology, the study of railways, particularly locomotives.
- Fetology, the study of the fetus, especially when within the uterus. Sometimes spelled foetology.
- Formicology, the study of ants
- Fungology, fungus + -ology, see mycology.
- Futurology, the study of the future
- Garbology - study of refuse and trash
- Gastrology or Gastroenterology - diseases of stomach and intestines
- Gemmology or Gemology, the study of gemstones and ornamental materials
- Genealogy (commonly misspelled and mispronounced as "geneology"), the study of relationships within families particularly with a view to constructing family trees
- Genecology, the study of genetic differences in relation to the environment
- Geobiology, the study of the biosphere and its relations to the lithosphere and atmosphere.
- Geochronology, the study of the age of the Earth
- Geology, the study of the Earth
- Geomorphology, the study of present-day landforms, traditionally on Earth but with increasing frequency on nearby planetary objects
- Gerontology, the study of old age
- Glaciology, the study of glaciers
- Grammatology, the study of writing systems. Also the study of deconstructive literary criticism, popularized in the 1960s by Jacques Derrida
- Graphology, the study of handwriting for the purpose of analysing the character of the writer
- Grossology, the study of gross (slang) and disgusting things. Fictional; book title
- Gynaecology or Gynecology, the study of medicine relating to women, or of women in general
- Hematology/Haematology, the study of blood
- Heliology, the study of the Sun
- Helioseismology, the study of vibrations and oscillations in the Sun
- Helminthology, the study of parasitic worms. See Vermeology.
- Hepatology, the study of the liver; a branch of medicine
- Herbology, the study of the therapeutic use of plants
- Herpetology, the study of reptiles and amphibians
- Heterology, the attribute (of a word) of not being self descriptive. The word "monosyllabic" is heterological because it is not monosyllabic. (compare autology)
- Heteroptology, the study of true bugs
- Hieroglyphology, Egyptian hieroglyphics, an ancient writing system
- Hierographology, the study of sacred texts
- Hierology, a more inclusive term for theology
- Hippology, study of horses
- Histology, the study of living tissues
- Histopathology, the study of the (microscopic) structure of diseased tissues
- Historiology, the study of the writings and practices of historians
- Homology, concept in anthropology, biology, algebraic topology, and sociology, meaning "likeness in structure"
- Horology, the study of making timepieces, measuring time and timekeeping (also the study of time)
- Hydrogeology, the study of underground water
- Hydrology, the study of water
- Hypnology, the study of sleep (also: somnology)
- Ichnology, the study of fossil footprints, tracks, and burrows
- Ichthyology, the study of fish
- Ideology, the study of ideas throughout society both socially,politically,historically and literary
- Immunology, the study of the immune system
- Indology, the study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent
- Iranology, the study of history, literature, art and culture of Iran (Persia)
- Islamology, the study of the Islam
- Japanology, the study of Japanese people
- Laryngology, the study of the larynx, or voice box; a branch of medicine
- Lepidopterology, the study of butterflies and moths
- Lexicology, the study of the signification and application of words
- Limnology, the study of fresh water environments, particularly lakes
- Lithology, the study of rocks
- Ludology, the study of video games
- Lymphology, the study of the lymph system and glands
- Malacology, the study of mollusks
- Mammalogy, the study of mammals
- Mereology, a branch of logic focusing on the study of part-whole relationships
- Meteorology, the study of weather
- Methodology, (properly) the study of methods
- Metrology, the study of measurement
- Microbiology, the study of micro-organisms.
- Micrology, the science of preparing and handling microscopic objects for study.
- Mineralogy, the study of minerals
- Missiology, the study of missions and missionary work
- Mixology, the study or skill of preparing mixed drinks.
- Molinology, the study of windmills, watermills and animal engines.
- Monadology, a book by Leibniz on the study of his theory of monads.
- Morphology, the study of forms that is used in several other fields (biology, linguistics, astronomy, etc.)
- Museology, the study of museum management.
- Musicology, the study of music
- Mycology, the study of fungi
- Myology the scientific study of muscles
- Myrmecology, the study of ants
- Mythology, the study of myths
- Nanotechnology, the study and design of machines at the molecular level
- Nanotribology, the study of friction on a very small (atomic) scale
- Nematology, the study of nematodes
- Neonatology, the study of diseases and the care of newborn infants; a branch of pediatrics/paediatrics
- Nephology, the study of clouds
- Nephrology, the study of the kidneys and their diseases, a branch of medicine
- Neurology, the study of nerves
- Neuropathology, the study of neural diseases
- Neurophysiology, the study of the functions of the nervous system
- Nosology, the study of disease classification
- Numerology, the study of numbers (often in a non-mathematical sense)
- Nutriology, the study of nutrition
- Oceanology, the study of oceans
- Odonatology, the study of dragonflies and damselflies
- Odontology, the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth
- Oenology, the study of wine
- Omnology, the study of everything
- Oncology, the study of cancer
- Oneirology, the study of dreams
- Onomatology, the study of proper names
- Ontology, the study of existence
- Oology, the study of eggs
- Ophthalmology, the study of the eyes
- Organology, the study of musical instruments (not just organs); alternatively, the study of anatomical organs
- Ornithology, the study of birds
- Orology, the study of mountains and their mapping
- Orthopterology, the study of grasshoppers and crickets
- Osteology, the study of bones
- Otolaryngology, the study of the ear and throat; a branch of medicine
- Otology, the study of the structure, function, and pathology of the ear
- Otorhinolaryngology, the same as otolaryngology
- Paleoanthropology, the study of prehistoric people and human origins
- Paleobiology, the study of prehistoric life
- Paleobotany, the study of prehistoric metaphytes (i.e., multicellular plants)
- Paleoclimatology, the study of prehistoric climates
- Paleoecology, the study of prehistoric environments by analyzing fossils and rock strata
- Paleontology, the study of fossils of ancient life
- Paleophytology (see "paleobotany"), the study of ancient multicelled plants
- Paleozoology, the study of prehistoric metazoans (i.e., multicellular animals)
- Palynology, the study of pollen
- Parapsychology, the study of paranormal or psychic phenomenon that defy conventional scientific explanations
- Parasitology, the study of parasites
- Pathology, the study of illness
- Pedology (soil study), one of two main branches of soil science
- Pedology (children study)
- Penology, the study of prison management and criminal rehabilitation.
- Personology, a variant of physiognomy
- Petrology, the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form
- Pharmacology, the study of drugs
- Phenology, the study of periodic biological phenomena such as flowering, migration, breeding, etc.
- Phenomenology, the study and science of phenomena as distinct from the science of actual existence or being; also a movement founded by Husserl which studies conscious experience without its metaphysical concerns
- Philology, the study of a language together with its literature
- Phlebology, a branch of medicine that deals with the venous system
- Phonology, the study of vocal sounds
- Phrenology, the derivation of a persons character traits, by studying the shape of their skull
- Phycology, the study of algae
- Physiology, the study of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms
- Phytology, the study of plants; botany
- Phytopathology ("Plant pathology"), the study of plant diseases
- Phytosociology, the study of the ecology of plant communities
- Piphilology, the mnemonic practice of writing sentences such that the numbers of letters in the words correspond to the consecutive digits of pi
- Planetology, the study of planets and solar systems; more commonly called Planetary science
- Planktology, the study of plankton
- Pneumology, a synonym of Pulmonology
- Pomology, the scientific study and cultivation of fruits
- Posology, the study of drug dosage
- Primatology, the study of primates
- Proctology, the study of the hind regions (rectum, anus, colon and pelvic floor) of the body
- Psephology, the study, especially statistical, of elections.
- Psychobiology, the study and psychology of organisms with regard to their functions and structures
- Psychology, the study of mental processes in living creatures
- Psychopathology, the study of the mental processes within mental illness or disorders
- Psychopharmacology, the study of psychotropic or psychiatric drugs
- Psychophysiology, the study of the physiological bases of psychological processes
- Pulmonology, the specialty in medicine that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract
- Radiology, the study of rays, usually ionising radiation
- Redology, the study of the classical Chinese literary masterpiece Dream of the Red Chamber
- Reflexology, originally the study of reflexes or of reflex responses; but see also non-study list
- Rheology, the study of flow
- Rheumatology, the study of rheumatic diseases, a branch of medicine
- Rhinology, the study of the nose and its diseases
- Ripperology, the study of Jack the Ripper and the crimes associated with him
- RKOlogy , the study of RKOs
- Sarcology, a subsection of anatomy that studies the soft parts. It includes myology, angiology, neurology, and splanchnology
- Scatology, the study of feces
- Scientology, the applied religious philosophy created by American writer L. Ron Hubbard
- Sedimentology, a branch of geology that studies sediments.
- Seismology, the study of earthquakes
- Selenology, the study of the moon
- Semiology, the study of signs
- Semitology, the study of Semitic cultures
- Serology, the study of blood serum
- Serpentology, the study of snakes
- Sexology, the study of sex
- Sindonology, the study of the Shroud of Turin
- Sinology, the study of China
- Sitiology, dietetics, the study of diet. Also, a treatise on diet. Also spelled "sitology"
- Sociology, the study of society
- Sociobiology, the study of the effect of evolution on ethology
- Somnology, the study of sleep, also: hypnology
- Somatology, study of human characteristics
- Soteriology the study of the doctrine of salvation, especially as related to Christianity
- Sovietology, the study of communist Soviet Union
- Speleology, the study or exploration of caves
- Splanchnology, the study of the viscera
- Sporalogy, a parody of astrology
- Stemmatology, a discipline that attempts to reconstruct the transmission of a text (especially a text in manuscript form) on the basis of relations between the various surviving manuscripts
- Stomatology, study of the mouth and its diseases.
- Sumerology, the study of the Sumerians.
- Symbology, the study and interpretation of symbols, or a set of symbols. Also used for types of barcodes
- Symptomatology, the study of symptoms
- Synecology, the study of the ecological interrelationships among communities of organisms
- Syphilology, the study of syphilis
- Taxology, a synonym for taxonomy
- Technology, the study of the practical arts (but see above)
- Teleology, the study of ends or final causes
- Teratology, the study of wonders, or monsters
- Terminology, the usage and study of terms.
- Thanatology, the study of physical, psychological and social problems associated with dying.
- Thermology, the study of heat.
- Theology, the study of God or gods
- Tibetology, the study of Tibet
- Tocology, the study of childbirth, sometimes spelled "tokology".
- Tonology, the study of intonation in speech
- Topology, the mathematical study of closeness and connectedness
- Toxicology, the study of poisons
- Traumatology, the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or assaults and their surgical treatment and repair; a branch of medicine
- Tribology, the study of friction and lubrication
- Trichology, the study of hair and the scalp
- Typology, the study of classification
- Ufology, the study of Unidentified flying object (UFO) phenomena.
- Universology, The science of the universe, and the relations which it involves.
- Unology, the science and study of unity in all of its forms.
- Uranology, The branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole.
- Urbanology, The study of urban problems, esp. as a social science.
- Urology, the study and treatment of diseases of the urogenital tract, a branch of medicine. Sometimes spelled "ourology".
- Uronology, That part of medicine which treats of urine.
- Uroradiology, Examination of the urinary tract by radiological techniques.
- Vaccinology, the study of vaccines
- Venereology, the study of venereal diseases
- Vexillology, the study of flags
- Victimology, the study of victims of crime, often applied to characterizing the criminal
- Virology, the study of viruses
- Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology), the study of volcanoes and related phenomena (traps)
- Zooarchaeology, the study and analysis of animal remains at archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people, animals, and their environment (also see Archaeozoology)
- Zoology, the study of animals
- Zoopathology ("Animal pathology"), the study of animal diseases
- zoopsychology, the study of mental processes in animals
- Zymology, the study of fermentation
Ologies that are not fields of studyWords ending in -ology that are not fields of study, and thus not "ologies" in the sense of this article, are:
- Anthology, a collection of literary pieces (such as poems).
- a statement of regret.
- an explanation for or justification of beliefs.
- Arcology - enormous habitat (hyperstructure) of extremely high human population density.
- Chronology is the arrangement or setting out of past events in order of occurrence; the recording of historical events in date sequence.
- Cosmetology, the art and career of using cosmetics to improve beauty.
- ambiguous or equivocal speech, or
- a work composed in two parts (see trilogy)
- Docimology, a treatise on the art of testing, e.g. in assaying metals.
- Doxology, a spoken or sung end of a prayer.
- Eulogy, though not an -ology, is a commemoration of a person's life at his/her funeral.
- Hagiology is literature dealing with the life of a saint or, indeed, any revered person, a biography of an individual, rather than a study of saints, sainthood or saintliness in general.
- Heterology, a dissimilarity of parts often attributable to a difference in origin.
- Homology, a similarity often atributable to common origin
- Ideology, sometimes spelled idealogy, is a system of ideas about politics, human life or culture.
- Kibology, joke religion worshiping Kibo.
- Menology, a register of months, or a calendar of the lives of the saints for each day of the year.
- Necrology, a list of people who have died, especially in the recent past or during a specific period.
- Philology, the historical study of languages. This is not a ology in the strict sense, because it is not the study (-ologia) of love (philo-), but the love (philo-) of literature (logia).
- Phraseology is the way words are put together, therefore the style being used in a sentence, or the set of phrases or the choice of words used by any particular group of people, or a type of register that reflects the form of language used in a certain social situation in which particular subjects are being discussed.
- Piphilology seems to be a borderline case with some aspects of a field of study, but not a scientific discipline.
- Reflexology, alternative method of massage, therapy or pressure on certain points of the sole of the feet as a means of relieving nervous tension.
- Tautology, a self-affirming truth.
- Terminology, a set of words and/or phrases, usually in relation to some particular canon or field of study e.g. 'mathematical terminology'.
- Tetralogy of Fallot, an abnormality of the heart consisting of four deformities that often occur together.
- Trilogy (although not strictly an -ology) is a body of writing in three parts, as tetralogy is that in four parts. Other words such as pentalogy, hexalogy, heptalogy or septology, octology, nonology, and dekology cover larger series.
- Tropology, the use of tropes in speech or writing.
- A Zumology is a treatise on the fermentation of liquors.
tropology in German: -logie
tropology in Malay (macrolanguage): -logi
tropology in Japanese: -logy
tropology in Turkish: -loji
tropology in Urdu: فہرست علوم